Google updated Chrome for iOS earlier this week. One of the new features in the update is the option to long-press on the back arrow to quickly access your browsing history for that particular tab.
As you can see in the video, the feature is very easy to use, but one that might not be all that obvious if you make a habit of skipping change logs. The displayed history is specific to the current tab you're viewing, and not an overview of your entire Chrome browsing history.
Make sure you're using the latest version of Chrome for iOS if the feature isn't showing up for you.